In the fitness space, there are thousands of people on social media who post content about all sorts of different topics. While it’s great that we have access to so much information, it can be a double-edged sword since the information on social media is totally unregulated. There are a ton of people posting really good, helpful information, but at the same time, there are many others posting terrible, inaccurate information, which can be quite harmful.
Because of this, it’s important to be able to discern who is and who is not a good source of information.
There are some important key indicators that can help you determine whether someone may or may not be a reliable source of information in the nutrition space. In this article, we will explore 5 areas that will help you develop a really strong BS radar to avoid bad nutrition information.
#1: Educational Background
First, let’s discuss the importance of having an educational background specifically in the field of nutrition. It's important to note that a Ph.D. or a medical degree is not necessary to have knowledge about nutrition. However, formal education in nutrition or a related field can provide a solid foundation for accurate information and critical thinking.
Education in nutrition equips individuals with in-depth knowledge of human physiology, biochemistry, and the science of nutrition. It helps them understand the intricate interactions between food, nutrients, and the human body. A formal education in the field often includes coursework on nutrition science, metabolism, dietary guidelines, and research methods. Therefore, someone with formal education likely possesses a deeper understanding of the subject matter and the ability to analyze and interpret scientific research effectively.
On the other hand, it's also important to recognize that not all individuals with advanced degrees are experts in nutrition. For instance, medical doctors, while highly knowledgeable in many areas, may not receive extensive training in nutrition during their medical education. The focus of their training lies primarily in diagnosing and treating medical conditions. Consequently, their knowledge of nutrition might be very limited or outdated. Unfortunately, many of the individuals posting inaccurate information online are people who are “doctors” such as MD’s and Chiropractors. It’s crucial to distinguish between healthcare professionals who specialize in nutrition (such as registered dietitians) and medical doctors whose expertise lies in other areas.
When assessing the educational background of a nutrition influencer, consider the following points:
Relevance to Nutrition: Look for individuals who have pursued education specifically related to nutrition or dietetics. This can include degrees in nutritional sciences, dietetics, public health nutrition, or certifications from reputable nutrition organizations.
Accredited Programs: Pay attention to whether the individual has completed an accredited program or received certifications from recognized institutions. Accredited programs ensure that the curriculum meets specific standards and follows evidence-based guidelines.
Continued Learning: Determine if the person actively engages in continuing education to stay updated on the latest research and developments in the field of nutrition. This can be demonstrated through participation in workshops, conferences, or additional certifications.
Practical Experience: While formal education is important, practical experience also plays a crucial role. Consider whether the influencer has practical experience working with individuals or groups, as this hands-on experience can provide valuable insights and understanding.
Critical Thinking Skills: Education contributes to the development of critical thinking skills, allowing individuals to evaluate and interpret scientific research objectively. Look for influencers who demonstrate a nuanced understanding of research methodologies and are capable of providing evidence-based information.
Again, while formal education in nutrition is not the only factor determining expertise, it can serve as an important indicator of a reliable source. However, it is crucial to consider the specific field of study, relevance to nutrition, and ongoing learning and practical experience. By critically assessing an influencer's educational background, you can make more informed decisions regarding the nutrition information you consume.
#2: Claims Being Made and Products Being Sold
When evaluating the reliability of nutrition information provided by individuals on social media, it is very important to pay close attention to the types of claims the individual makes and the products they sell.
One of the key indicators of a good source of nutrition information is the person’s ability to provide nuance and context when answering questions. Nutrition is complicated, and the answer to most questions is "it depends".
Depends on what? On the context.
For example, someone may ask: is sugar bad?
A bad source of nutrition info would likely just say yes, sugar is bad, without any context.
An expert would say, it depends. You ideally want to reduce added sugars in your diet because the sources of foods that have high amounts of added sugar likely don’t provide much nutritional value. That being said, foods high in natural sugars, like fruit, are fine and their consumption is associated with improved health outcomes. Furthermore, in sports specific contexts, consuming sugar may actually help improve performance.
See the difference? A true expert provides context.
Reliable sources acknowledge this complexity and offer information that is tailored and individualized.
Be cautious of individuals who make absolute statements without considering the broader context. Claims such as "this supplement causes X outcome" or "X food causes weight gain" without any mention of nuance or moderation should raise skepticism. Nutrition-related topics are very nuanced and specific outcomes are generally influenced by multiple factors. Dogmatic oversimplification can lead to misinformation.
It’s also important to consider what kind of products the particular person promotes or sells.
A common red flag is when individuals promote specific narratives that align with the products they sell. This isn’t always the case, but it is a commonality between bad sources of information. They may attempt to convince you that a certain problem can only be solved by using their product.
For example, someone selling a "carb blocker" supplement may propagate the notion that all carbohydrates are inherently bad and cause weight gain, thereby positioning their product as a solution. Good sources of nutrition information focus on balanced and evidence-based advice, rather than pushing products as magic solutions.
In general, good sources of nutrition information strive to provide a balanced perspective by incorporating scientific evidence and acknowledging the complexity of nutrition. They rarely, if ever, make black-and-white statements without providing context. Furthermore, good sources of nutrition information provide evidence-based rationales for the products they sell and/or the companies they are sponsored by.
#3: Research to Support Claims
It is crucial to evaluate the kind of research that influencers and content creators cite to support their claims. Scientific claims should be grounded in reliable and evidence-based research, which plays a fundamental role in establishing the credibility of nutrition information. Unfortunately, there are instances where individuals share misinformation without proper research citations, or worse, rely on inappropriate or weak studies that fail to substantiate their claims. In this section, we will delve into the significance of research quality and explore various types of studies commonly encountered in nutrition information.
The Importance of Research in Nutrition Claims
When it comes to providing accurate and trustworthy nutrition information, scientific research serves as the backbone. Research studies enable us to understand the complex relationships between diet, health, and well-being. They contribute to the body of knowledge by generating empirical evidence that can inform dietary recommendations, interventions, and public health policies. This is why it’s incredibly important that nutrition influencers rely on credible research to support their claims, ensuring that their information aligns with current scientific understanding. If certain individuals make claims online without any quality research supporting their claims, then they are just sharing their opinion, not factual information.
Evaluating Research Quality
That being said, not all research studies are created equal. Often times, bad sources of information cite studies that don’t actually support what they’re saying. This is why it is essential to assess the quality, methodology, and reliability of the research cited by nutrition influencers. Different types of studies offer varying levels of evidence and strength. Now, you’re not going to learn all of the intricacies of research from reading a blog article, but there are some general guidelines we can share with you that will help you determine whether the research being cited supports the claims being made. First and foremost, there are different types of research studies, including:
- Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): Considered the gold standard in nutrition research, RCTs involve randomly assigning participants to different interventions to evaluate the impact on specific outcomes. These studies provide robust evidence, especially when conducted with large sample sizes and rigorous methodologies.
- Meta-analyses and Systematic Reviews: These studies compile and analyze data from multiple individual studies to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence. They offer valuable insights by synthesizing data and assessing the overall quality and consistency of research findings.
- Observational Studies: These studies observe and analyze associations between factors, such as dietary habits and health outcomes, in real-world settings. While they cannot establish causation, well-designed observational studies can provide valuable insights into long-term effects and population-level trends.
Red Flags in Research Citations
When evaluating nutrition information, it is crucial to watch out for red flags in the research citations provided. Here are some common warning signs:
- Cherry-picking: Influencers selectively choosing research studies that support their claims while disregarding contradictory or conflicting evidence.
- Misinterpretation: Misrepresenting or misinterpreting study findings to align with preconceived notions or personal biases.
- Inappropriate Sources: Relying on studies that are not directly relevant to the claim being made, such as using animal or cell culture studies to support claims about human health.
- Lack of Citations: Claims made without any references or citations, making it challenging to verify the accuracy and validity of the information.
Seeking Consensus and Expert Opinions
In addition to individual research studies, it is beneficial to consider the consensus among experts and authoritative bodies in the field of nutrition. Expert opinions and guidelines, such as those published by reputable organizations, provide a collective understanding of the current state of knowledge in nutrition science. Relying on consensus-based recommendations can offer a more comprehensive and reliable perspective on nutrition information. Often times, online charlatans will say the exact opposite of what the expert consensus is, ie: “The government is trying to keep you sick by telling you to eat carbohydrates.” If anyone is ever going against what the expert consensus is in the space of nutrition, they’re likely making up random claims.
By being aware of these red flags and critically evaluating the research cited, you can better navigate the landscape of nutrition information on social media. Remember, reliable nutrition sources prioritize the use of high-quality research, provide proper context, and acknowledge the limitations and uncertainties within the scientific literature.
#4: Humility and Willingness to Admit Mistakes
A person’s humility and willingness to admit mistakes can tell you a ton about their intellectual honesty. A good source of nutrition information is not only knowledgeable but also demonstrates the willingness to admit mistakes, engage in open dialogue, and evolve their understanding based on new evidence. On the other hand, bad sources of nutrition information often exhibit a lack of humility, refusing to acknowledge errors or entertain alternative viewpoints.
Intellectual Humility and Open-Mindedness
One of the key traits of a reliable source of nutrition information is intellectual humility. This quality encompasses an individual's recognition of the limitations of their own knowledge and the openness to consider different perspectives. Good sources of information approach nutrition discussions with a sense of humility, recognizing that the science of nutrition is complex and constantly evolving. They are open to engaging in respectful discussions, considering alternative viewpoints, and acknowledging the possibility of being wrong. Doing so is incredibly important because it shows that the person is more interested in knowing the truth rather than pushing their personal agenda.
Admitting and Correcting Mistakes
A strong indicator of a credible nutrition influencer is their willingness to admit mistakes. Nobody is infallible, and in the ever-evolving field of nutrition, new research can challenge existing beliefs. Good sources of information embrace the opportunity to learn and grow by acknowledging and rectifying their errors. They take responsibility for any inaccuracies or misinformation they may have previously shared, demonstrating a commitment to providing accurate and updated information to their audience. Admitting that you’ve made mistakes and are willing to change your thought process in light of new evidence is a key characteristic of intellectual honesty.
Engaging in Evidence-Based Discussions
Reliable sources of nutrition information value evidence-based discussions. They actively seek out and consider new research findings, integrating them into their knowledge base. When presented with contradicting evidence, they approach it with an open mind and critically evaluate its validity and implications. Instead of stubbornly clinging to outdated beliefs, they are willing to adjust their viewpoints based on the weight of scientific evidence. By engaging in evidence-based discussions, they foster an environment that encourages learning and growth for both themselves and their audience.
Integrity and Transparency
In addition to humility and willingness to admit mistakes, reliable sources of nutrition information uphold integrity and transparency in their communication. They clearly disclose any conflicts of interest, such as affiliations with companies or products that could potentially bias their recommendations. They prioritize the well-being of their audience by offering objective information and avoiding misleading or sensationalistic claims. Their transparency builds trust and ensures that their primary focus is providing accurate and evidence-based nutrition guidance.
By recognizing the importance of humility and willingness to admit mistakes in nutrition influencers, you can better identify reliable sources of information. Engaging with individuals who value intellectual honesty and promote evidence-based discussions will empower you to make informed decisions about your own health and well-being.
#5: Social Circles
The last thing you should consider when determining whether or not someone is a good source of information is their social circle. While there is an abundance of individuals sharing valuable and accurate nutrition information, it is equally important to be aware of the company they keep within the online community. Evaluating an influencer's social circle can provide valuable insights into their credibility and the quality of information they provide.
Good sources of nutrition information often associate and collaborate with other trusted professionals within the field. They engage in meaningful discussions, participate in collaborative projects, and contribute to a network of experts. By aligning themselves with respected professionals, they demonstrate a commitment to staying up-to-date with the latest research and maintaining a high standard of accuracy and credibility. You may notice them appearing as guests on reputable podcasts, being cited by other professionals, or participating in conferences and symposiums alongside experts in the field.
Reliable sources of nutrition information receive recognition and validation from their peers. Professionals within the nutrition community who are well-regarded and respected are more likely to endorse and reference their work. This validation reinforces the credibility of the information shared by an influencer. Keep an eye out for testimonials, collaborations, and mentions from other professionals, as these interactions indicate a level of trust and recognition within the nutrition community.
On the other hand, bad sources of nutrition information usually socialize with other sources of bad nutrition information because they are not well respected by the evidence-based community. By evaluating an influencer's social circle, considering their associations, peer recognition, and alignment with ethical practices, you can gain valuable insights into the reliability of the nutrition information they provide. Remember that being part of a credible network and receiving recognition from trusted professionals can serve as strong indicators of an influencer's credibility and dedication to evidence-based information.
In a world overflowing with nutrition information, it's crucial to hone our ability to discern reliable sources from those spreading misinformation. The accessibility of online information has its advantages, but it also presents a significant challenge—distinguishing the good from the bad. That being said, by paying attention to key indicators, you can develop a keen BS radar to protect yourself from falling victim to unreliable nutrition advice.